NAME OF DISTRICT
District Sant Kabir Nagar is a newly created district in the eastern belt of U.P.. The district came to be known by its present name on account of Sant Kabir, the well known Sant (poet) and philosopher, lived at Maghar in the district. District Sant kabir nagar was created on September 5, 1997 from district Basti. including 131 villages from tahsil Basti, and 161 from tahsil Bansi of district Siddharth Nagar. The district lies among Gorakhpur in the east, Basti in the west, Siddharth Nagar in the north and Ambedkar Nagar in the south.. According to the district statistical department the district covered an area of 1659.15 sq. km. According to the census of 1991 the district has a population 1162138 persons of which 605533 are males and 556505 females of which 81718 persons, resided in urban areas and 1080420 in rural areas. The population density of the district is about 700 per sq. km. while 472 is of the state.
The district,in spite of its apparent uniformity of aspect, it divided topographically into several distinct tract namely, the low valley of the Ghaghra in the south, extending from that river to its tributary, the Kuwana; the central upland ,between the latter river and the Rapti; and the low and ill-drained paddy belt between the Rapti and others.
RIVER SYSTEM AND WATER RESOURCES
The district has two main river systems namely, the Ghaghra and Rapti, both of which ultimately form a part of the great Gangetic system. The other streams of the district are the Kuwana,its tributaries are, the Rawai, The Manwar and the Katnehia, and the Ami is a tributary of Rapti.
Tributaries of the Ghaghra:- The Ghaghra receives directly hardly any of the drainage of the district, as exception the immediate neighborhood of its bands, all the surplus water is intercepted by its affiance. Occasionally the river overflows its banks and submerges the adjoining lowlands, with the result the water is actually transferred from the river to the Manwar or Kuwana. The latter, in its lower reaches near Bhanpur, is joined with the Ghaghra by cross channel and from that point onwards it acts as an arm of the Ghaghra.
TRIBUTARIES OF THE KUWANA :-It has several tributaries, the important ones being Rawai,Manwar and Katnehia.sees in the :
The Rawai joins the Kuwana on the right bank and is a small stream which rises in the north of Amorha and thence flows between steep and sandy banks frequently infected with reh, through the western half of paragana Basti for a short distance and ultimately joins the Kawana.
The Manwar Manorama, rises in Gonda and flows in an easterly direction along the edge of Sikri forest to the district boundary. For a short distance it separates the latter district from Gonda and is then joined by the Chamnai, a small and sluggish stream. after the junction the Manwar bents to the south-east and flows through the centre of pargana Amorha, on the eastern boundary of which it receives a small tributary called Ramrekha on its right bank. It then passes through the two paraganas of Nagar East and Nagar West and joins the Kawana in Lalganj in Mahuli West.
The only tributary of any importance that is received by the Kuwana on its left bank is the Katnehia, which rises in the swamps to the north of Basti East and flows in the south easterly direction along the borders of the Nagar East, where it units with the Garehia, a similar stream which has its origin in the south of Rasulpur. Their combined water continues in a south easterly direction along the borders of Nagar East and Mahuli West parganas, then turning south to join the Kuwana at Mukhlishpur in Mahuli East.
This river rises in the foot hills of Nepal to the north of Behraich and after course of about 130 km. from that district traverses to the northern portion of the Gonda and first touches Sant Kabir Nagar in the north-west.
The tributaries and affluents of the Rapti are very numerous, especially those on the left bank. Those on the south represent merely old bends of the river and as such are of little importance, save as local drainage channels. The chief of these is the Ami.
The lakes of the district are numerous and several of them are of considerable size. They are most commonly formed by the changes in the river channels, while in the other cases the natural depressions in which the surface of water collects, are generally due in some measure to fluvial action. The largest and the most celebrated lake in the district is the Bakhira or Badhanchh Tal, sometimes calles the Moti Jhil, which lies on the eastern borders of the district between Bakhira and Mehdawal. This lake though seldom more than two metres in depth, covers a very large area of about 8 km. long and 3 km. broad. The water in the lake is largely derived from the overflow from Rapti.
The district is underlain by Quaternary alluvium comprising and of various grades, gravel, kankar and clay. The Alluvium can be classified into two groups, the Older alluvium and the Newer alluvium.
Older alluvium:- It is of middle Pleistocene age and generally occupies high ground which is not affected by floods during the rainy season.
The Newer alluvium :- It covers the lower height and is mainly conferred to the flood plains along the river channels and belongs to the upper Pleistocene to the recent age.
Kankar:- Substantial deposits of kankar are available in the tahsil of Harriya only.
Reh :- Reh is also reported from some localities of the district.
The climate of the district is more equable than the adjoining districts to the south.The year may be divided into four seasons. The winter season, from mid-November to February is followed by the summer season lasting till about the middle of June. The period from mid-June to the end of September constitutes the south-west mansoon season. October to mid-November is the post mansson or transition period.
Rainfall :- The average annual rainfall in the district is 1166 mm.
Temperature :- During the winter seasons the mean minimum temperature is about 9 degree Celsius and mean maximum 23 degree Celsius while during the summer seasons the minimum is about 25 degree Celsius and mean maximum is about 44 degree Celsius.
Humidity :- In the south-west mansoon and the post mansoon seasons the relative humidity is high, being above 70 percent. Thereafter the humidity decreases and in the summer air is very dry.
Cloudiness :-During the mansoon season, and for brief spells of a day or two in association with passing disturbances in winter, heavily clouded or overcast skies prevail. In the rest of the year the skies are mostly clear or lightly clouded.
Winds :- Winds are in general very light with a slight increase in force the late summer and mansoon seasons. The average annual wind blow in the district is ranging from 2 to 7.1 km/hrs.
In the former days a large part of the district was covered with forest of sal and other trees, but since then most of it has been cleared and brought under the plough . Though the district is no longer rich in timber, it can still be described as well-wooded, owing to the numerous clumps of mango (Mangitera indica), mahua (Madhuca longifolia), sal (Sorea robusta), and bamboo (Bambusa arundinacea).
Plantations of fast growing species such as bamboo, Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus teritrornis), mango and shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) have been raised in the district.
The wild animals which are found in this district include the nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), antelok (Anelok cervicapra), pig (Sus scrofa), wolf (Canis lupus), jackal (Conis aureus), fox (Vulpes bengalensis), hare (Lepus ruficandatus), monkey (Macaca mulatta), wild cat (felis bengalensis) and the porcupine (Hystric leucura) .
The game - birds of the district include the usual varieties found through out the plains. Among them mention may be made of the peafowl(pavo cristatus), the black partridge (frencolinus francolinus) and the gray partridge(francalinus pondicervanus). Basti is famous for the number and variety of water fowls which visit it during the winter season. The goose (Anser anser), comon teal (Anas crecca), red-cristed pochard duck(netta rufina), white-eyed pochard (aythya rufa) and widgeon (mareca penelope) visit the district only in winter and inhabit the fringes of rivers lakes and swamps.
Snakes are common in the district especially in the rural areas, the chief being the Cobra (Naja Naja), karait (Bungarus caeruleus), and rat-snake (ptyas mucosus). Indian crocodile or naka (Crocodilus pulustris), and the ghariyal (gavialis gangeticus) are also found in the river Ghaghra.
Fish of almost all the varieties that occur elsewhere in the state are found in the rivers, lakes and ponds of the district, the common species being rohu (lebeo rohita), bhakur (Catla catla), nain (Cirrhina mrigala), parhin (Wallagonia attu), krunch (lebeo calbasu), tengan (Mystus seenghla) and etc.